The why’s and why not’s of the First Pelopnnesian war between the city states of Athens and Sparta in Ancient Greece.

Peloponnesian War marked the dramatic end to the fifth century BC and the golden age of Greece.

The democratic city state of Athens, not. They kept slaves while practicing their “democracy.” Sparta kicked their ass and conquered Athens, leaving much of it in ruin. Spartans were no practicioners of democracy either as they ran their state according to strict oligarchic rules.

 

The First Peloponnesian War (460–445 BC) was fought between Sparta as the leaders of the Peloponnesian League and Sparta’s other allies, most notably Thebes, and the Delian League led by Athens with support from Argos. This war consisted of a series of conflicts and minor wars, such as the Second Sacred War. There were several causes for the war including the building of the Athenian long walls, Megara’s defection and the envy and concern felt by Sparta at the growth of the Athenian Empire.

The war began in 460 BC (Battle of Oenoe).[1][2][3][4] At first the Athenians had the better of the fighting, winning the naval engagements using their superior fleet. They also had the better of the fighting on land, until 457 BC when the Spartans and their allies defeated the Athenian army at Tanagra. The Athenians, however, counterattacked and scored a crushing victory over the Boeotians at the Battle of Oenophyta and followed this victory up by conquering all of Boeotia except for Thebes.

Athens further consolidated their position by making Aegina a member of the Delian League and by ravaging the Peloponnese. The Athenians were defeated in 454 BC by the Persians in Egypt which caused them to enter into a five years’ truce with Sparta. However, the war flared up again in 448 BC with the start of the Second Sacred War. In 446 BC, Boeotia revolted and defeated the Athenians at Coronea and regained their independence.

The First Peloponnesian War ended in an arrangement between Sparta and Athens, which was ratified by the Thirty Years’ Peace (winter of 446–445 BC). According to the provisions of this peace treaty, both sides maintained the main parts of their empires. Athens continued its domination of the sea while Sparta dominated the land. Megara returned to the Peloponnesian League and Aegina became a tribute-paying but autonomous member of the Delian League. The war between the two leagues restarted in 431 BC and in 404 BC.

Gandhi spoke when haute couture was not fashionable as it is now.

charkha

Bissho kobi Rabindranath Tagore. Universal Poet of the 19th Century. Hindustani and Rabindra shongeeth.  Mor bhabonarey ki haway mathalo. Sung by Anuradha Basu. What thunderous storms brought with life-Memories of Jerusalem of Gold; now and the past.

 Ketaki , Jerusalem of the ages.

Mor bhabonarey ki haway mathalo My heart remembers distant thoughts that swirl as storms dolae mono dolae akarono horoshae and makes it sing at every thought. Hridoyo gogone shojolo ghono in the heart’s sky there is splendid display. Nobino megher roshoreo dhara boroshae as young gathering of clouds spells rain.  Thaharae dekhina jae dekhina shudhu monae monae khonae khonae oi shona jai. Except in our souls where He speaks.  Baajae olokitho thari choronae runu runu runu runu nuporo dhoni.  Seeking fulfillment, the bells of the anklets hasten worshippers to their treasure, God. Gopono shoponae chaayilo apo rosho aacholaero nobo nilima, While blue hued rivers make him known. Oodae jai badolae aei bathashae thar chaya mayo elokae akashae. The storms leave the sky with shadows as their signatures. Shaejae mono mor nilo akuli jol bheja kethoki durshubahashe. Heart’s glory drenched in rain, the flowering Kethoki beckons distant horizons with wondrous delight.
 Ketaki Flowers

Here’s why MK Gandhi valued individual liberty; delight in beliefs as ascertained on May 2016. Study on it. USA.

 

Nobility Denied Not??

 

Why all civil revolutions have been non-violent. Satyagraha as standards of the rule of values. Values as ascertained from the Rabbinate of Yerushalayim.

 

 

How to spot a Nazi? “You look like a bit of a Nazi.” Andy Martin thought the zeitgeist in America was reminiscent of Paris in 1968. He stands corrected: Legendary critic Harold Bloom tells him it’s more like Berlin in 1934.

The world is haunted right now by the spectre of Nazism.  Tell tale signs include a taste for torture and a dogmatic definition of beauty.  Hitler preferred his form of beauty over any other.   Go to this site and find out how to develop your aesthetic. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/long_reads/how-to-spot-a-nazi-a-certain-style-and-a-taste-for-torture-a7594351.html