“This was a success for Hitler because: a. it wrecked the conference b. it left him free to rearm however he wanted c. it drove a wedge between the French and the British d. British politicians, while they were trying to persuade Germany to stay in the Conference, had agreed in principle that the arms clauses of the Treaty of Versailles were too harsh.”
Prelude to World War II and the Partition of British India
Hitler’s virulent anti-Semitism had, since 1933, helped fuel his rise to dictatorial power over Europe, whose aggressive expansion into defenseless Czechoslovakia in 1938 was sanctioned by Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at Munich. On the eve of World War II Chamberlain spoke of his pathetic betrayal as “Peace with Honour” claiming it would bring ‘peace in our time’ Gandhi when asked what he thought about the persecution of Jews, replied, “My sympathies are all with the Jews. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler. Gandhi expressed his tacit support of Chamberlain’s policy and called for simultaneous world disarmament: “I am as certain of it as I am sitting here, that this heroic act would open Herr Hitler’s eyes and disarm him.” To Agatha Harrison he wrote “My participation in the event of war would be no participation.” Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, By Stanley Wolpert.
Polish youth resistance organization, “Wawer“, was created. It was part of the Szare Szeregi (the underground Polish Scouting Association), and its first act was to create a series of graffiti in Warsaw around the Christmas of 1940, commemorating the massacre. Members of the AK Wawer “Small Sabotage” unit painted “Pomścimy Wawer” (“We’ll avenge Wawer”) on Warsaw walls. At first they painted the whole text, then to save time they shortened it to two letters, P and W. Later they invented Kotwica -“Anchor” – the symbol, a combination of these 2 letters, was easy and fast to paint. Next kotwica gained more meanings – Polska Walcząca (“Fighting Poland”) . It also stands for Wojsko Polskie (“Polish Army”) and Powstanie Warszawskie (“Warsaw Uprising”). Finally “Kotwica” became a patriotic symbol of defiance against the occupiers and was painted on building walls everywhere.
Courage well-lived. Polish resistance laws.
The Wawer massacre refers to the execution of 107 Polish civilians on the night of 26 to 27 December 1939 by the Nazi German occupiers of Wawer (near Warsaw), Poland. The execution was a response to the deaths of two German NCOs. 120 people were arrested and 114 shot, of which 7 survived. It is considered to be one of the first large scale massacres of Polish civilians by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland.
“Will America, England and the other great nations of the West continue to exploit the so called weaker or uncivilized races and hope to attain peace that the whole world is pining for? Or will Americans continue to prey upon one another, have commercial rivalries and yet expect to dictate peace to the world?” What a law of value NOT.
Inside the Old Synagogue. The Old Synagogue is an Orthodox Jewish synagogue in the Kazimierz district of Kraków, Poland. It is the oldest synagogue building still standing in Poland, and one of the most precious landmarks of Jewish architecture in Europe.In 1794 General Tadeusz Kościuszko spoke from the synagogue to gain the Jewish support in the struggle for Polish independence. A plaque in the entrance hall commemorates this event: “The Jews proved to the world that whenever humanity can gain, they would not spare themselves.” – General Tadeusz Kosciuszko The synagogue was completely devastated and ransacked by the Germans during World War II. Its artwork and Jewish relics, looted.During the occupation, the synagogue was used as a magazine. In 1943, 30 Polish hostages were executed at its wall. The Old Synagogue was renovated from 1956 to 1959 and currently operates as a museum. It is a Division of the Historical Museum of Kraków, with particular focus on Kraków’s Jews. The exhibits are divided into themes dealing with birth, prayer rituals, diet, divorce and death. The beautiful women’s prayer room, which dates from the 17th century, is often used to hold temporary exhibitions.