In the scenario of a Just War commend Cicero and his morality.

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Cicero’s writings include all the main elements of what today we call Just War Theory. 

This topic is broadly treated by John Mark Mattox in St. Augustine and the Theory of Just War, who supplies examples from Cicero’s writings of the specific principles of just cause, last resort, comparative justice, right intention, public declaration, proportionality, discrimination, and good faith. One may also easily identify these principles for oneself with reference to a single, short section, On Moral Duties 1.11.33 – 1.13.41. A fuller treatment of Cicero’s just war principles and theory, however, rightly deserves a dedicated article or book.

The similarities between Cicero’s Rome and today’s United States are numerous, striking, and important. Like today, Cicero’s times were ones of immense cultural and political upheaval. Rome was emerging as something like an unrivaled global super-power. The Roman military machine was unparalleled in technological sophistication. Like today, imperial expansion was judged as an economic necessity. But also like contemporary America, Cicero’s Rome was marked by a distinct sense of exceptionalism, and a conviction that imperial ambitions were not entirely selfish. That is, they were partly justified (or perhaps rationalized) as a humanitarian and mutually beneficial attempt to unite all nations in a single, civilized community, where Rome was only a ‘first among equals’.

Not only was Cicero an experienced politician himself, but the work that contains the essence of his just war theory, On Moral Duties, was written specifically as a long letter of advice to his son. Cicero had every reason to expect his son would, like him, one day reach a position of leadership (the younger Cicero did, in fact, later become consul) These complex factors, when blended with Cicero’s characteristic warmth, kindness, humanitarianism and love of country. Semi-realist in orientation, in contrast with the hard-line Realpolitik Cicero can regret as inhumane and unnecessary the Roman destruction of Corinth, yet accept as necessary (and, hence, just) the similar razing of Carthage. The difference was that Carthage was a genuine threat and (in the Romans’ eyes) a brutal enemy, while Corinth was merely a potential threat to Roman hegemony.

Last, we must give special attention to the distinctly religious orientation of Cicero’s works. Modern cultural commentators have pointed to the desirability of developing a non-sectarian spiritual framework for understanding and coping with the problems of the modern world. Ideally such a framework should be compatible with basic religious beliefs common to all religions, and also congenial to secular institutions like governments, public universities, etc. Cicero’s just war theory, along with the rest of his ethical writings, is firmly rooted in Platonic-Stoic religious ideas and virtue ethics. In particular, it is wedded to Stoic Natural Law theory; this holds, basically, that all that happens in the world is orchestrated by a Divine Intelligence, and that both justice and personal happiness are achieved by acting in concord with this plan. Failure to do so – for example, to wage war unjustly – must necessarily meet with divine disapproval and corrective punishment. nations to act justly. Importantly, this framework establishes a basis for judging an action moral or immoral that is absolute, not relative or merely based on expedience or utility. Indeed, one of Cicero’s main philosophical achievements is to drive home the point that (in war, as generally), what is immoral can never truly be expedient or advantageous.

A second, related legacy of Cicero’s Stoic leanings is his emphasis on cosmopolitanism. That is, for Cicero, all human beings, enemies included, are part of the human family, to all of whom we have strong moral responsibilities. As part of a non-sectarian religious philosophy, Cicero’s just war theory is something that can be discussed and developed by members of all religions on an equal footing – something equally acceptable to Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, Buddhists, Wiccans, New Age hippies, and agnostic theists alike. At present, any serious discussion of religious or spiritual moral principles by government officials, intellectuals, or public news media is a taboo. In consequence we have totally dissociated Just War Theory from spiritual and transcendental principles, which is both ineffective and absurd.  Let us, then, give Cicero’s just war theory a unprejudiced and thorough look. We may discover that Providence has, in his works, supplied many treasures.

May 24, 2012 at 11:48 pm. John Uebersax is a psychologist, writer and former RAND Corporation military analyst.

http://www.shakespeareswords.com/Titus-Andronicus. Rome et al.

TITUS

titusromeA better head her glorious body fits. Than his that shakes for age and feebleness. What should I don this robe and trouble you? Be chosen with proclamations today. Tomorrow yield up rule, resign my life. And set abroad new business for you all?  Rome, I have been thy soldier forty years. And led my country’s strength successfully. And buried one-and-twenty valiant sons, Knighted in field, slain manfully in arms,  field of battle, battleground, field of combat in right and service of their noble country.  Just claim, rights, title. Give me a staff of honour for mine age. But not a sceptre to control the world.  Upright he held it, lords, that held it last.

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A City Rich In History, Traditions and Cultures. Jerusalem.

“Ten portions of beauty, God gave to the world;
nine to Jerusalem and one to the remainder.
Ten portions of sorrow, God gave to the world; 
nine to Jerusalem and one for the rest of mankind.”
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Jerusalem is a religious center sacred to all three monotheistic religions: Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Religious pilgrims from all nations continue to congregate in the Holy City and millions of people flow through the gates of Jerusalem each year.References to the city of Jerusalem appear throughout the entire Scriptures.The Scriptural history of Jerusalem (known then as “Salem”), begins when Abraham meets “Melchizedek”(King of Justice) about 2000 BC. Through the ages it has been called by many names: Urusalim, Salem, Mount Moriah, Adonai Urah, Jebus, Jerusalem, Zion, the City of David, Ariel (Lion of God)
God has declared that this is the place He will establish His Name and will dwell there forever.
David conquered Jerusalem by defeating the Jebusites in 1052 BCE (Chronicles 1 11:4-9), nearly 3000 years ago.In history, No other city has been beloved and fought over as Jerusalem. After David’s death, Solomon (in 1015 BC/BCE) began to “build a house for the Name of the Lord” (Chronicles 2 2:1). It took seven years and 183,300 men to build it (Kings 1- 5:13-16; 6:38). It measured nearly 90 feet in length, 30 feet in width and 45 feet in height (1 Kings 6:2). The Holy Of Holies occupied one-third of the interior space, and the Holy Place, two-thirds. The complete details are described in Kings 1 – 6 & 7. When it was completed, the Glory of God filled the Temple (View the model of Ancient Jerusalem) (Chronicles 2 7:1).Israel was divided after Solomon’s death (979 BCE). The kingdom of Israel was in the north, while Judah was in the south.Jerusalem was the capital of Judah (the Southern Kingdom). It was ruled by a succession of twenty kings from 979 BCE to 586 BCE. Their reigns lasted from as short as three months (Jehoahaz and Jehoiachim) to as long as fifty-five years (Manasseh). The disheartening history of the declines of Judah is told in Kings 1 12:1-2, Kings 25:30, and 2 Chronicles 10:1-36:21.

Jerusalem was entirely destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 BC/BCE. The city and the Holy Temple were completely demolished and the articles of the Temple and its treasures were carried off to Babylon.
The inhabitants that were not killed were also taken to Babylon. Jerusalem was to lie desolate for seventy years in order that the land might enjoy its Sabbaths 
(Chronicles 2 36:17-21/Leviticus 26:34).

Seventy-one years later (445 BCE) In 539 BCE, Cyrus, king of Persia issued a proclamation to rebuild the Holy Temple in Jerusalem, a total of 42,360 people returned to Jerusalem and Judah to help rebuild the Temple, (not including male and female servants and the musicians), All gave according to their ability, in order to finance the work.

In the first year, Jeshua and Zerubbabel led a group to build the altar in order to offer sacrifices in accordance with Torah.
It was finally completed in 516 BCE and took twenty-three years.
In 167 BCE the Greeks converted the Temple in Jerusalem into a show place to Greek idols

In 40 BCE the Romans being the super power of that time dispatched an army of 30,000 infantry and 6,000 cavalry to take Jerusalem. Jerusalem and its Temple were incinerated.

When Christianity became the official religion of the Roman Empire under Constantine, the basilica of the Holy Sepulcher was built in Jerusalem, the most important and prominent building in the city at the time.

During the Byzantine era (330-640 CE) many impressive Christian architectural monuments were built in the city. Jerusalem was a major Christian center, attracting pilgrims from all over the Roman Empire. Monks and clergy from the various sects started to settle in the city, and pilgrims from different countries filled Jerusalem’s streets: Ethiopians and Armenians, Copts and Nestorians, Syrian Jacobites and Gregorians and, above all, Greek-Orthodox, who became the dominant Christian group in the city.

At the end of the 11th century, Seljuk tribes invaded the country. The city passed from one ruler to another until the arrival of the Crusaders who ruled about two hundred years (1095-1187) CE and again after a brief period, from (1189-1348).

Christian Crusaders order in Jerusalem was extremely brutal, especially at the beginning of the period, and the domination of the city was accompanied by a massacre of most of the Jews and Moslems residing there.

Jerusalem has been fought over by armies of the Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians, Greeks, Ptolemies, Seleucids, Romans, Byzantines,Persians, Arabs, Seljuks, Crusaders, Mongols, Mamelukes, Turks, British, Jordanians, Egyptians, Syrians, Lebanese, and Iraqis. Today the nations of the entire world consider it their responsibility and obligation to intervene in her politics and destiny.

This is a city that has been besieged about forty different times and destroyed (at least partially) on thirty-two different occasions. The rulership of Jerusalem has changed hands some twenty-six times. From the time of the establishment of the State of Israel in May of 1948 until 1967, the city was divided. Walls, barbed-wire fences and a desolated strip of non-man’s land cut through the very heart of the city, especially excluding the Jews from the Old City and the Temple Mount. During that time the Jewish Quarter was leveled and its synagogues burned. Jewish graves and monuments were desecrated or turned into latrines, Since 1948 Jerusalem has experienced four wars. Jerusalem, “The City of Peace” has known wars and destruction since it existence was first known to us from the Biblical record.

Today, Jerusalem is more of a city of religion, art, culture, and museums than an economically viable regional marketplace or a center of business activity. Yet Jerusalem thrives in our time as a city full of mystical attractiveness and endless fascination.

Jerusalem has played, and will continue to play, an important part in God’ deliverance of the earth, His Holy City, and our involvement in it.  By Lena Mor – http://www.HolyLandNetwork.com