Fascism. From Wikipedia. Fascism as an Insult as well.

fascismsymbolThe symbolism of the fasces suggested strength through unity: a single rod is easily broken, while the bundle is difficult to break.

Fascism (/fæʃɪzəm/) is a form of reactionary authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe. Influenced by national syndicalism, fascism originated in Italy during World War I, in opposition to liberalism, Marxism, and traditional conservatism. Fascism is often placed on the far-right within the traditional left–right spectrum, but some academics call that description inadequate. Fascists identify World War I as a revolution. It brought revolutionary changes in the nature of war, society, the state, and technology. The advent of total war and total mass mobilization of society had broken down the distinction between civilian and combatant. A “military citizenship” arose in which all citizens were involved with the military in some manner during the war. The war had resulted in the rise of a powerful state capable of mobilizing millions of people to serve on the front lines or provide economic production and logistics to support those on the front lines, as well as having unprecedented authority to intervene in the lives of citizens. Fascists view World War I as having made liberal democracy obsolete and regard total mobilization of society led by a totalitarian single-party state as necessary for a nation to be prepared for armed conflict and to respond effectively to economic difficulties, such a totalitarian state is led by a strong Dictator and a martial government composed of the members of the governing fascist party to forge national unity and maintain a stable and orderly society. Fascism rejects assertions of violence automatically being negative in nature and views political violence, war, and imperialism as means that can achieve national rejuvenation. Fascism borrowed theories and terminology from socialism but replaced socialism’s focus on class conflict with a focus on conflict between nations and races. Fascists advocate a mixed economy, with the principal goal of achieving autarky to secure national self-sufficiency and independence through protectionist and interventionist economic policies. Following World War II, few parties have openly described themselves as fascist, and the term is usually used pejoratively by political opponents. The terms neo-fascistor post-fascist are sometimes applied more formally t Fascist as an insulting description of a political entity or persons describe parties of the far right with ideological similarities to, or roots in, 20th century fascist movements. The word fascist is sometimes used to denigrate people, institutions, or groups that would not describe themselves as ideologically fascist, and that may not fall within the formal definition of the word. The Fascist party that developed in Italy in the 1920s rigidly enforced conservative values and behavior norms during the Mussolini regime. As a political epithet, fascist was subsequently used in an anti-authoritarian sense to emphasize the common ideology of governmental suppression of individual freedom. It has also been applied to a broad range of people and groups, including people of many religious faiths, particularly fundamentalist groups. The individual, institution, or group(s) called fascist often find the use of the term in this way to be highly offensive and inappropriate. In this sense, the word fascist is intended to mean “oppressive“, “intolerant“, “chauvinist“, “genocidal“, “jingoistic“, “dictatorial“, “racist“, and/or “aggressive“—all concepts that are allegedly inspired by the ideology of actual fascism, and pervasive through fascist states. One might accuse an inconveniently placed police roadblock as being a “fascist tactic” for its perceived oppression or interloping, or an overly authoritarian teacher as being “a total fascist”. Terms like Nazi and Hitlerite are often used in similar contexts. The slur has been used since the beginning of the actual Fascist movement and is still common in the 21st century.

The Fascists came to associate the name with the ancient Roman fasces or fascio littorio which consisted of a bundle of rods that were tied around an axe an ancient Roman symbol of the authority of the civic magistrate carried by his lictors which could be used for corporal and capital punishment at his command.

 

The unification of Italy or the Risorgimento. 1861 AD.

Tenets: Nationalism.

Italian Fascism is based upon Italian nationalism, and in particular seeks to complete what it considers as the incomplete project of Risorgimento by incorporating Italia Irredenta (“unredeemed Italy“) into the state of Italy.[1][9] The National Fascist Party (PNF) founded in 1921, declared that the party was to serve as “a revolutionary militia placed at the service of the nation. It follows a policy based on three principles: order, discipline, hierarchy.”

It identifies modern Italy as the heir to the Roman Empire and Italy during the Renaissance, and promotes the cultural identity of Romanitas (“Roman-ness”).[9] Italian Fascism historically sought to forge a strong Italian Empire as a “Third Rome”, identifying ancient Rome as the “First Rome”, and Renaissance-era Italy as the “Second Rome”.[9] Italian Fascism has emulated ancient Rome, and Benito Mussolini in particular emulated ancient Roman leaders, such as Julius Caesar as a model for the Fascists’ rise to power, and Augustus as a model for empire-building.[10] Italian Fascism has directly promoted imperialism, such as within the Doctrine of Fascism (1932) ghostwritten by Giovanni Gentile on behalf of Mussolini, declared:

The Fascist state is a will to power and empire. The Roman tradition is here a powerful force. According to the Doctrine of Fascism, empire is not only territorial or military or mercantile concept, but a spiritual and moral one. One can think of an empire, that is, a nation, which directly or indirectly guides other nations, without the need to conquer a single square kilometre of territory.

—Benito Mussolini, Giovanni Gentile, Doctrine of Fascism (1932).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Primer of Italian Fascism. 1926, Revised by Jeffrey Schnapp. (2000). Nations at war should behoove themselves of G.B Vico’s advice and devote themselves to removing fascism above all else.

The keystone of fascist doctrine is the conception of the State of its functions, its aims. For Fascists absolute, individuals and groups. (Benito Mussolini.)

The keystone of fascist doctrine is its conception of the State, of its essence, of its functions, its aims. For Fascism the State is absolute, individuals and groups relative. (Benito Mussolini.)

From Machiavelli, G.B. Vico must yet be connected with the great Florentine from whom in a certain way he seems to proceed. In the heyday of “natural law” Vico is decidedly opposed to ius naturale and in his attacks against its advocates, Grotius, Seldenus and Pufendorf he systematically assails the abstract, rationalistic, and utilitarian principles of the eighteenth century. A scholar correctly states: While the “natural jurists” basing justice and state on utility and interest and grounding human certitude on reason, were striving to draft permanent codes and construct the perfect state, Vico strongly asserted the social nature of man, the ethical character of the juridical consciousness, and its growth through human history and not reason rather than in sacred history. Vico therefore maintains that doctrines must begin with those subjects that take up and explain the entire course of civilization. Experience and not ratiocination, history and not human reason must help human wisdom to understand civil and political regimes that were the result of not reason or philosophy but common sense, or if you will the social consciousness of man. and further on, “to Vico we owe the conception of history in its fullest sense as teacher of life, the search after the humanity of history, the principle that makes the truth progress with time, the discovery of the “political course of nations.” It is Vico who uttered the eulogy of patrician “heroic hearts” of the first founders of states, magnanimous defenders of the commonwealth and wise counselors of politics. To Vico we owe the criticism of democracies, the affirmation of their brief existence, of their rapid disintegration at the hands of fascism and demagogues, of their lapse first into anarchy, then into monarchy, when their degradation does not make them prey of foreign oppressors. Vico conceived of civil liberty as subjection to law, as just subordination of the private to the public interest, to the sway of the State. It is Vico who sketched modern society as a world of nations, each one guarding its own empire, fighting just and not unjust human wars. In Vico we find the condemnation of pacificism, that right is actualized by bodily force, that without force, right is of no avail and that therefore “he who cannot defend himself against injury is enslaved.”  It is not difficult to discern the analogies between these affirmations and the fundamental view and the spirit of fascism. Nor should we marvel at the this similarity. Fascism, has its roots in the Risorgimento, and the Risorgimento was influenced undoubtedly by Vico. It would be inexact to affirm that the philosophy of Vico dominated the Risorgimento, (19th century movement for Italian political unity.) The influence of Italian tradition as summed up by Mazinni whose interpretation of the citizen as duty and mission is to be connected to Vico’s doctrine. Training for social duty said Mazinni is essentially and logically unitarian. Life for it is but a duty, a mission. And further on, “the declaration of rights, which all constitutions insist on copying slavishly from the French considered the individual as the end and pointed to only the half of the problem,” and again, “assume the existence of one of the crises that threaten the life of the nation and demand the active sacrifice of its sons.” Will you ask the citizens to face martyrdom in virtue of their rights? And now you ask them to sacrifice for one and all, suffer and die for the safety of the nation? In Mazzini’s conception of the citizen as an instrument for the attainment of the nation’s ends and therefore submissive to a higher mission to the duty of supreme sacrifice, we see the anticipation of one the  fundamental points of fascist doctrine. Unfortunately, the autonomy of political thought of Italy seemed to exhaust itself immediately after the unification. Italian political thought, which had been original in times of servitude, became enslaved during times of freedom.  A powerful innovating movement, issuing from the war and of which fascism is the purest expression.

From the Oscar Winning Film By Director Giorgio Bassani, The Garden of the Finzi-Continis. 1938-1943.

finzicontinis1

The Finzi-Continis, Italy, 1938.

The Finzi-Continis, Italy, 1938.

A world where love was forgotten-a garden where love grew.

 

A Salute to Hitler and friend Mussolini.

A Salute to Hitler and friend Mussolini.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The garden of the Finzi-Continis. A world where love was forgotten-a garden where love grew.

audio https://moralupbringing.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/01-13-il-giardino-dei-finzi-contini-for-orchestra.mp3%5D Released again in 2014 -il-giardino-dei-finzi-contini.