Ektuku Choa Lage, Whenever I feel your touch, Ek Tuku kotha shuni, I yearn to learn more from You. Thai dhiye monae monae, This is how you reach hearts, rochi momo falguni [x2] as if the purpose of seasons were fulfillment of my longings. Kichu polasher nesha, kichu ba chapay mesha, Drunk as I am with Polash and the Chapa flowers, Thai dhiye shurae shurae, I make a song of them, ronge roshae jaal buni and weave beautiful dreams. Je tuku kachae-thae ashae, khoniker fakae fakae, Whatever small gift You provide in the face of fate, Chokito moner kone the surprised mind, shoponer chobi anke makes a picture of it. Jetuku jay re dure, What flees to the other side, bhabna kapay shure, makes memories shiver, Thai niye jay baela and the day takes them, nupurero thaal guni by singing the praises of anklet- bells. Thai niye jaay baela, nupurero thaal guni, Rochi momo falguni, Ek tuku Choya Laage, Ektuku kotha shuni. Whenever I feel your touch, I yearn to learn more from You.
It seems that God does not exist; because if one of two contraries be infinite, the other would be altogether destroyed. But the name God means that He is infinite goodness. If, therefore, God existed, there would be no evil discoverable; but there is evil in the world. Therefore, God does not exist.
Bruce R. Reichenbach seeks to defend God’s exists in the face of natural evil by appealing to a morally sufficient reason for the existence of evil. According to this view, God must have a morally sufficient reason for allowing natural evils that makes it inappropriate to assign God any blame. Reichenbach accepts the atheist’s contention that without a morally sufficient reason one could not reasonably accept the existence of an all-good and all- powerful God. Accordingly, he searches for some fact about the existence of natural evil and God’s causality of the natural world which protects God from blame and preserves his perfect goodness. To claim that natural evils are the unintended consequence of what God does intend, does not ipso facto exonerate God from culpability for their occurrence. Since God is omnipotent, he should be expected to have no limits to what he can bring about. Thus, as omnipotent, he should be able to create a world without natural evils. If such evils do occur, the morally sufficient reason that preserves God’s goodness must arise from natural evil being unavoidable. God would be free from blame for natural evils, not only because they are unintended consequences, but more importantly because they are unavoidable. Only what is logically necessary is unavoidable for God. A state of affairs is logically necessary if the description of the prevention of that state of affairs contains or entails a contradiction. Thus, for example, if God chooses and should choose a given good, and that good logically implies an accompanying evil, God is not blame-worthy for the evil. For God to choose the good but prevent the evil is a contradiction. The occurrence of the evil, in such a case, is logically necessary, and so God cannot be blamed for it. He would still be all-good, even though this evil were present in his creation. Reichenbach thus proposes a concatenation of unavoidable necessity which renders it inappropriate to blame God for the existence of natural evils. According to Reichenbach, natural evils are the unintended consequence of the world operating according to natural laws, and these natural laws, in turn, are necessary for there to be free moral agents. That God wills free moral agents is likewise necessary because a world without them is inferior to a world with them. Given that God wills to have free moral agents, then he must also will the world to operate according to natural laws, which will result in natural evils. The only alternative to a world operated by natural laws is a world operated by miracle, but such a miraculous world would not allow for the existence of free moral agents and a significant exercise of their freedom. Reichenbach’s theodicy thus hangs on this chain of necessity which holds God to having to allow natural evils in order to have free moral agents, which he is also bound to do. Reichenbach gives two reasons for the impossibility of God creating free moral agents in a world operated my miracle. First, deliberation, a necessary condition for the exercise of rational choice, is prohibited given the confusion and unpredictability of a world operated by miracle. Moral action requires rational deliberation on the best means to attaining one’s desired end. However, if the world does not operate according to any regularity, but only according to the caprice of divine will, then a moral agent has no way to anticipate which means are likely to bring about which ends. Moral action is thus thwarted because rational knowledge is impossible. http://www.aquinasonline.com/Topics/probevil.html.
Truth, peace, righteousness and nonviolence, Satya, Shanti, Dharma and Ahimsa, do not exist separately. They are all essentially dependent on love. When love enters the thoughts it becomes truth. When it manifests itself in the form of action it becomes truth. When Love manifests itself in the form of action it becomes Dharma or righteousness. When your feelings become saturated with love you become peace itself. When you fill your understanding with love it is Ahimsa. Practicing love is Dharma, thinking of love is Satya, feeling love is Shanti,and understanding love is Ahimsa. For all these values it is love which flows as the undercurrent. The world rests upon the bedrock of satya or truth; asatya meaning untruth also means “nonexistent” and satya or truth, means that which is of untruth does not so much exist. Its victory is out of the question. And truth being “that which is” can never be destroyed. This is the doctrine of Satyagraha in a nutshell. Ahimsa: In Gandhi’s Satyagraha, truth is inseparable from Ahimsa. Ahimsa expresses as ancient Hindu, Jain and Buddhist ethical precept. The negative prefix ‘a’ plus himsa meaning injury make up the world normally translated ‘nonviolence’. The term Ahimsa appears in Hindu teachings as early as the Upanishads. The Jain Religion constitutes Ahimsa as the first vow. It is a cardinal virtue in Buddhism. Despite its being rooted in these religions, the special contribution of Gandhi was to make the concept of Ahimsa meaningful in the social and political spheres by moulding tools for nonviolent action to use as a positive force in the search for social and political truths. Gandhi formed Ahimsa into the active social technique, which was to challenge political authorities and religious orthodoxy.
July 4, 1776.
The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,
WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.
WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.
He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.
He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.
He has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.
He has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.
He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.
He has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.
He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.
He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.
He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.
He has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.
He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.
He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.
He has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:
For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:
For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:
For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:
For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:
For depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:
For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pre-tended Offences:
For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies:
For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:
For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.
He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.
He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.
He is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy of the Head of a civilized Nation.
He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.
He has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.
In every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.
Nor have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.
We, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our fortunes, and our sacred Honor.
লাবণ্যে পূর্ণ প্রাণ প্রাণেশ হে একি লাবণ্যে পূর্ণ প্রাণ, প্রাণেশ হে, আনন্দবসন্তসমাগমে ॥ বিকশিত প্রীতিকুসুম হে আনন্দবসন্তসমাগমে পুলকিত চিতকাননে ॥একি লাবণ্যে পূর্ণ প্রাণ, প্রাণেশ হে হেজীবনলতা অবনতা তব চরণে। হরষগীত উচ্ছ্বসিত হে কিরণমগন গগনে ॥
What is this beauty that completes the soul while in search of it? Come so that we may celebrate that wonder in the midst of joy and spring. Oh arrive flowering love that writes so that it is heard. The leaves of life at thy feet are a happy song filling the heavens. Amidst joy and spring lightning conquers the sky making heaven one’s own.
Raftha raftha woh meri hasthi ka saamaan ho gaye,
Subtly and gradually, God became the reason for my existence.
Pehlay jaan, phir jaan-e-jaan, phir jaan-e-jaana ho gaye
First my life, then the love of my life, finally our love became complete.
Din-b-din bardthi gehin eis husn ki raaniyaan.
Day by day, my love’s beautiful empire increased.
Pehlay Gul, phir gul-badan, phir gul-badamaan ho gaye
First the love was like a fragrance after which it transformed into a flower then finally blossoming into a rose.
Aap tho nazdeek say nazdeek-thar aathay gaye
You kept coming closer and closer to me. And being close was enough for intimacy.
Pehlay dil, phir dilruba, phir dil kay mehmaan ho gaye
First my heart, then my precious love and finally a permanent guest in my heart.
Raftha raftha woh meri hasti ka saamaan ho gaye
Subtly and gradually, God became my existence.
Pyar jab Hadd se badha saare Taqaloof mitth gaye
When love transcended its boundaries, all unknowing was erased.
Aap se phir thum huay phir thu ka unwaan hogaye
First we were formal informal and finally one.