What constitutes civil authority according to MK Gandhi? At the root of Satya and Ahimsa or love. 

theheresyoforthodoxyTruth, peace, righteousness and nonviolence, Satya, Shanti, Dharma and Ahimsa, do not exist separately.  They are all essentially dependent on love. When love enters the thoughts it becomes truth. When it manifests itself in the form of action it becomes truth. When Love manifests itself in the form of action it becomes Dharma or righteousness. When your feelings become saturated with love you become peace itself. When you fill your understanding with love it is Ahimsa. Practicing love is Dharma, thinking of love is Satya, feeling love is Shanti,and understanding love is Ahimsa. For all these values it is love which flows as the undercurrent.  The world rests upon the bedrock of satya or truth; asatya meaning untruth also means “nonexistent” and satya or truth, means that which is of untruth does not so much exist. Its victory is out of the question. And truth being “that which is” can never be destroyed. This is the doctrine of Satyagraha in a nutshell. Ahimsa: In Gandhi’s Satyagraha, truth is inseparable from Ahimsa.  Ahimsa expresses as ancient Hindu, Jain and Buddhist ethical precept. The negative prefix ‘a’ plus himsa meaning injury make up the world normally translated ‘nonviolence’.  The term Ahimsa appears in Hindu teachings as early as the Upanishads. The Jain Religion constitutes Ahimsa as the first vow.  It is a cardinal virtue in Buddhism. Despite its being rooted in these religions, the special contribution of Gandhi was to make the concept of Ahimsa meaningful in the social and political spheres by moulding tools for nonviolent action to use as a positive force in the search for social and political truths.  Gandhi formed Ahimsa into the active social technique, which was to challenge political authorities and religious orthodoxy.

Nava Durga, Goddess Durga, Odissi by Revital Carroll. Made New.

Authority and law. Do laws need authority before they can be laws? Binding authority perhaps.

commonlawMandatory authority rely on sources to have jurisdiction over laws. Lower courts are required to follow decisions from higher courts all the time.  Authority resides in persons; they possess it – if indeed they do at all – by virtue of who they are and not by virtue of what they command. The anarchist’s position:- ­ right to rule corresponds with an obligation to obey. However, is a right to rule always paired with an obligation to obey, or might the authority to rule really just be, e.g., a permission to use force, not something that generates an obligation? Thomas Jefferson:- Liberty is unobstructed action according to our will within limits drawn around us by the equal rights of others. I do not add ‘within the limits of the law’ because law is often but the tyrant’s will, and always so when it violates the rights of the individual.”

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http://www.law.georgetown.edu/academics/academic-programs/legal-writing-scholarship/writing-center/upload/secondarysources.pdf. www.newswithviews.com/Ewart/ron139.htm

When is life divinely ordained? People are required to govern themselves.

charters_logo_for_exhibit_pagesdeclarationofindependenceAction of Second Continental Congress.

July 4, 1776.

The unanimous Declaration of the thirteen united States of America,

WHEN in the Course of human Events, it becomes necessary for one People to dissolve the Political Bands which have connected them with another, and to assume among the Powers of the Earth, the separate and equal Station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature’s God entitle them, a decent Respect to the Opinions of Mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the Separation.

WE hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness—That to secure these Rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its Foundation on such Principles, and organizing its Powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient Causes; and accordingly all Experience hath shewn, that Mankind are more disposed to suffer, while Evils are sufferable, than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long Train of Abuses and Usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object, evinces a Design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their Right, it is their Duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future Security. Such has been the patient Sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the Necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The History of the present King of Great-Britain is a History of repeated Injuries and Usurpations, all having in direct Object the Establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid World.

He has refused his Assent to Laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public Good.

He has forbidden his Governors to pass Laws of immediate and pressing Importance, unless suspended in their Operation till his Assent should be obtained; and when so suspended, he has utterly neglected to attend to them.

He has refused to pass other Laws for the Accommodation of large Districts of People, unless those People would relinquish the Right of Representation in the Legislature, a Right inestimable to them, and formidable to Tyrants only.

He has called together Legislative Bodies at Places unusual, uncomfortable, and distant from the Depository of their public Records, for the sole Purpose of fatiguing them into Compliance with his Measures.

He has dissolved Representative Houses repeatedly, for opposing with manly Firmness his Invasions on the Rights of the People.

He has refused for a long Time, after such Dissolutions, to cause others to be elected; whereby the Legislative Powers, incapable of Annihilation, have returned to the People at large for their exercise; the State remaining in the mean time exposed to all the Dangers of Invasion from without, and Convulsions within.

He has endeavoured to prevent the Population of these States; for that Purpose obstructing the Laws for Naturalization of foreigners; refusing to pass others to encourage their Migrations hither, and raising the Conditions of new Appropriations of Lands.

He has obstructed the Administration of Justice, by refusing his assent to Laws for establishing Judiciary Powers.

He has made Judges dependent on his Will alone, for the Tenure of their Offices, and the Amount and Payment of their Salaries.

He has erected a Multitude of new Offices, and sent hither Swarms of Officers to harrass our People, and eat out their Substance.

He has kept among us, in Times of Peace, Standing Armies, without the consent of our Legislatures.

He has affected to render the Military independent of and superior to the Civil Power.

He has combined with others to subject us to a Jurisdiction foreign to our Constitution, and unacknowledged by our Laws; giving his Assent to their Acts of pretended Legislation:

For quartering large Bodies of Armed Troops among us:

For protecting them, by a mock Trial, from Punishment for any Murders which they should commit on the Inhabitants of these States:

For cutting off our Trade with all Parts of the World:

For imposing Taxes on us without our Consent:

For depriving us, in many Cases, of the Benefits of Trial by Jury:

For transporting us beyond Seas to be tried for pre-tended Offences:

For abolishing the free System of English Laws in a neighbouring Province, establishing therein an arbitrary Government and enlarging its Boundaries, so as to render it at once an Example and fit Instrument for introducing the same absolute Rule into these Colonies:

For taking away our Charters, abolishing our most valuable Laws, and altering fundamentally the forms of our Governments:

For suspending our own Legislatures, and declaring themselves invested with Power to legislate for us in all Cases whatsoever.

He has abdicated Government here, by declaring us out of his Protection and waging War against us.

He has plundered our Seas, ravaged our Coasts, burnt our Towns, and destroyed the Lives of our People.

He is, at this Time, transporting large Armies of foreign Mercenaries to compleat the Works of Death, Desolation, and Tyranny already begun with circumstances of Cruelty and Perfidy, scarcely paralleled in the most barbarous Ages, and totally unworthy of the Head of a civilized Nation.

He has constrained our fellow Citizens taken Captive on the high Seas to bear Arms against their Country, to become the Executioners of their friends and Brethren, or to fall themselves by their Hands.

He has excited domestic Insurrections amongst us, and has endeavoured to bring on the Inhabitants of our Frontiers, the merciless Indian Savages, whose known Rule of Warfare, is an undistinguished Destruction, of all Ages, Sexes and Conditions.

In every stage of these Oppressions we have Petitioned for Redress in the most humble Terms: Our repeated Petitions have been answered only by repeated Injury. A Prince, whose Character is thus marked by every act which may define a Tyrant, is unfit to be the Ruler of a free People.

Nor have we been wanting in Attentions to our British Brethren. We have warned them from Time to Time of Attempts by their Legislature to extend an unwarrantable jurisdiction over us. We have reminded them of the Circumstances of our Emigration and Settlement here. We have appealed to their native justice and Magnanimity, and we have conjured them by the Ties of our common Kindred to disavow these Usurpations, which, would inevitably interrupt our Connections and Correspondence. They too have been deaf to the Voice of Justice and of Consanguinity. We must, therefore, acquiesce in the Necessity, which denounces our Separation, and hold them, as we hold the rest of Mankind, Enemies in War, in Peace, Friends.

We, therefore, the Representatives of the UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, in General Congress, Assembled, appealing to the Supreme Judge of the World for the Rectitude of our Intentions, do, in the Name, and by Authority of the good People of these Colonies, solemnly Publish and Declare, That these United Colonies are, and of Right ought to be, FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, that they are absolved from all Allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political Connection between them and the State of Great-Britain, is and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as FREE AND INDEPENDENT STATES, they have full Power to levy War, conclude Peace, contract Alliances, establish Commerce, and to do all other Acts and Things which INDEPENDENT STATES may of right do. And for the support of this Declaration, with a firm Reliance on the Protection of divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our Lives, our fortunes, and our sacred Honor.

constitution

Sings with all the saints in glory, Ludvig Von Beethoven.

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Sing with all the saints in glory, sing the resurrection song!Death and sorrow, earth's dark story, 
to the former days belong. All around the clouds are breaking, soon the storms of time shall cease; 
in God's likeness we, awaking, know the everlasting peace. O what glory, far exceeding all that eye has yet perceived! 
Holiest hearts, for ages pleading, never that full joy conceived. God has promised, Christ prepares it, 
there on high our welcome waits. Every humble spirit shares it; Christ has passed th'eternal gates.
3.Life eternal! heaven rejoices; Jesus lives, who once was dead. Join we now the deathless voices;	child of God, lift up your head! 
Patriarchs from the distant ages, saints all longing for their heaven, prophets, psalmists, seers, and sages, 
all await the glory given. Life eternal! O what wonders crowd on faith; what joy unknown, when, amidst
earth's closing thunders, saints shall stand before the throne! O to enter that bright portal, see that glowing firmament; 
know, with thee, O God Immortal,"Jesus Christ whom thou has sent!"

Sir Arthur Rubinstein Beethoven Piano Concerto No. 5. Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, Jerusalem, Israel. Pt. Rajan & Sajan Mishra Of Patiala Gharana, Home To the Patiala Style of Vocal Hindustani Classical Music. Raag Malkauns. Seasons.

jerusalem1

Jerusalem of old.

Jerusalem of old.

kahuki aankhiya raseel rasili man bhaye, o itna sundara mukh gaye, chabi jaan sab saankhiya, saadha mor mor muskan jaathe mukh aeso chanchal naar kar ke shringar mukh mor mor muskan jaathe.  Aaj more ghar aayee le balama more ghar aayi le balama karungi sadarang so rang rangaliya..sugandhara gyan phool basan payroon phulaban se jaki chaaon chuna chuna galiyan. It appears for a while that I cannot extol the beauty of my Love as you rest in my heart.  Your beautiful face when made known, all the handmaidens appeared. Your smile which fills human beings with grace. Like a peacock full of  pride my beloved came home today. I will worship HIM with songs of praise and adoration. Adorned with the fragrance of flowers we pay homage to your glory. And I will bless your name in every corner of this earth.

Jean Sibelius- Johan Julius Christian Sibelius; 8 December 1865 – September 1957). Violin Concerto.

 Sibelius was a Finnish composer of the late Romantic period. His music played an important role in the formation of the Finnish national identity.

Immortal Beloved-Letters Of Beethoven From The Movie. Vladimir Horowitz, the moonlight sonata. Piano music by Beethovan.