Who has authority over sin? God determining worthiness for blessings.




Receive these blessings may do so only with the approval of the “judge in Israel.”

The absence of authority. The Sophist movement of the 19th century:The French Republic of Bonaparte.

sophists13It is tempting to perceive the uncertainties surrounding the meaning of tradition in Athens as an experienced by modern societies. The Sophist movement draws attention to the reaction’ observes that the “revolt against 19th century ‘may serve as an analogy.’

2nd republicFrench Second Republic”The French Second Republic was the republican government of France between the 1848 Revolution and the 1851 coup by Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte which initiated the Second Empire. It officially adopted the motto Liberté, Égalité, Fraternité. The Second Republic witnessed the tension between the “Social and Democratic Republic” (French: la République démocratique et sociale) and a liberal form of Republic, which exploded during the June Days Uprising of 1848.

BonaparteConstitution:  The new constitution, proclaiming a democratic republic, direct universal suffrage and the separation of powers, was promulgated on 4 November. Under the new constitution, there was to be a single permanent Assembly of 750 members elected for a term of three years by the scrutin de liste. The Assembly would elect members of a Council of State to serve for six years. Laws would be proposed by the Council of State, to be voted on by the Assembly. The executive power was delegated to the President, who was elected for four years by direct universal suffrage, i.e. on a broader basis than that of the Assembly, and was not eligible for re-election. He was to choose his ministers, who, like him, would be responsible to the Assembly. Finally, revision of the constitution was made practically impossible: it involved obtaining three times in succession a majority of three-quarters of the deputies in a special assembly. It was in vain that Jules Grévy, in the name of those who perceived the obvious and inevitable risk of creating, under the name of a president, a monarch and more than a king, proposed that the head of the state should be no more than a removable president of the ministerial council. Lamartine, thinking that he was sure to be the choice of the electors under universal suffrage, won over the support of the Chamber, which did not even take the precaution of rendering ineligible the members of families which had reigned over France. It made the presidency an office dependent upon popular acclamation.Frenchrepublic