Jhoro jhoro borishae bari dhara hai potho bashi, hai gothi hinu, The rainfall will only last until it reaches the shores. Hai gothi hinu hai griho hara. What are those who depend on the starry heaven to guide their journey to do now? Phirae bayu, they cry, swiftly return black clouds that carry rain. Shorae phirae bayu, let thunder, lightning and rain sing with one voice again. Dakea karae, who are they in unison calling for? Jononino ashimo pranthorae, they plead for those whose shores are at the end of the world. Rojoni adhara and lightning lost, hai potho bashi hai gothi hinu hai griho hara adhira jomuna thorongo akula bokularae, the restless river Jamuna’s strong waters, thimiro dhokula shogonaei rae dhokularae, Unfortunately only the timid afraid that they will be forgotten, nibiro nirodho gogonae, look up at the empty skies, goro goro goro gorojae, and hear only the thunder that carry no songs of the rain falling. Choncholo chapula chamokae, the restless lightning nahi shoshi thara, do not have an answer, What are they who carry misfortune going to do now? Hai griho hara, having lost their way, what are the ones for whom the starry heavens carry no rain fall only empty clouds.
Mon mor megher shongi, The peacock that is my heart is a friend like the cloud. Ure chale dhigdhigantherra pane. It wanders to all the corners of the world. Nisheemo shunaeye, and in the dark universe shrabonobarshanesangite brings with it the season of the sraban month and with it the pitter patter sound of rain. Rimijhim rimijhim rimijhim. Mono mor hanshabalakar pakhai jai ure, My heart thus transformed into a swan has now taken flight. Kochito kochito chokito thorito-aloke. Lightning covering heaven and earth. Jhanmanjarir bajai jhanjha rudra anade. My heart sings and melts the broken hearted. Kalo-kalo kalomandre nirjharinee. Black hearts weep for redemption, Dak dey praloy-ahwabhane. That is what time demands Bayu bahe purbasamudra hothae See the winds shake oceans, Uchchalo chalo-chalo tatinitarange waves leaping hither and thither. Mono mor dhai thari matho prabahe, My heart is full and wants to share its riches with the world. Taal-tamalo-araneya, With tender renditions, Khuddha shakhar andolone speaks of Almighty God’s rule universally.
MK Gandhi: “Zionism in its spiritual sense is a noble aspiration, but Zionism which aims at the re-occupation of Palestine by Jews does not appeal to me. I understand the yearning of the Jew to return to the land of his forefathers. He can and should do that in so far as this return can be achieved without English or Jewish bayonets. In that case the Jew who goes to Palestine can live in perfect peace and friendship with the Arabs. The real Zionism which rests in the hearts of the Jews is an aim one should strive and give one’s life. Such a Zionism is the abode of God. The true Jerusalem is a spiritual Jerusalem. And that spiritual Zionism can be realized by the Jew in every part of the world.”
During the Second World War (1939–1945), India was controlled by the United Kingdom, with the British holding territories in India including over five hundred autonomous Princely States; British India officially declared war on Nazi Germany in September 1939. The British Raj, as part of the Allied Nations, sent over two and a half million soldiers to fight under British command against the Axis powers. The British government borrowed billions of pounds to help finance the war. India also provided the base for American operations in support of China in the China Burma India Theater. Indians fought with distinction throughout the world, including in the European theatre against Germany, in North Africa against Germany and Italy, in the South Asian region defending India against the Japanese and fighting the Japanese in Burma. Indians also aided in liberating British colonies such as Singapore and Hong Kong after the Japanese surrender in August 1945. Over 87,000 Indian soldiers (including those from modern day Pakistan, Nepal, and Bangladesh) died in World War II. Field Marshal Sir Claude Auchinleck, Commander-in-Chief of the Indian Army from 1942 asserted that the British “couldn’t have come through both wars [World War I and II] if they hadn’t had the Indian Army.” Indian participation in the Allied campaign remained strong. The financial, industrial and military assistance of India formed a crucial component of the British campaign against Nazi Germany and Imperial Japan.India’s strategic location at the tip of the Indian Ocean, its large production of armaments, and its huge armed forces played a decisive role in halting the progress of Imperial Japan in the South-East Asian theatre. The Indian Army during World War II was one of the largest Allied forces contingents which took part in the North and East African Campaign, Western Desert Campaign.
Causes of World War II: Susan Heep, Pinterest.
Geneva Disarmament Conference 1932
“This was a success for Hitler because: a. it wrecked the conference b. it left him free to rearm however he wanted c. it drove a wedge between the French and the British d. British politicians, while they were trying to persuade Germany to stay in the Conference, had agreed in principle that the arms clauses of the Treaty of Versailles were too harsh.”
Prelude to World War II and the Partition of British India
Hitler’s virulent anti-Semitism had, since 1933, helped fuel his rise to dictatorial power over Europe, whose aggressive expansion into defenseless Czechoslovakia in 1938 was sanctioned by Britain’s Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain at Munich. On the eve of World War II Chamberlain spoke of his pathetic betrayal as “Peace with Honour” claiming it would bring ‘peace in our time’ Gandhi when asked what he thought about the persecution of Jews, replied, “My sympathies are all with the Jews. The tyrants of old never went so mad as Hitler. Gandhi expressed his tacit support of Chamberlain’s policy and called for simultaneous world disarmament: “I am as certain of it as I am sitting here, that this heroic act would open Herr Hitler’s eyes and disarm him.” To Agatha Harrison he wrote “My participation in the event of war would be no participation.” Gandhi’s Passion: The Life and Legacy of Mahatma Gandhi, By Stanley Wolpert.