Orestes A. Brownson — preacher, magazine editor, lecturer, reformer, socialist, Transcendentalist, and writer — was an avid labor reformer in the 1830s and 1840s. Here he argues that so-called “free labor” is far more oppressed than slave labor.
Forced labor as all involuntary work or service exacted under the menace of a penalty. It can be used to describe a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ILO Forced Labour Convention of 1930, any work or service which forms part of the normal civic obligations of the citizens of a fully self-governing country; Payment for unfree labour See also: Labour economics § Wage slavery, Labor theory of value, and Productive and unproductive labour. Convict labourers in Australia in the early 20th century. If payment occurs, it may be in one or more of the following forms: The payment does not exceed subsistence or barely exceeds it; The payment is in goods which are not desirable and/or cannot be exchanged or are difficult to exchange; or The payment wholly or mostly consists of cancellation of a debt or liability that was itself coerced, or belongs to someone else. Unfree labour is often more easily instituted and enforced on migrant workers, who have travelled far from their homelands and who are easily identified because of their physical, ethnic, linguistic, or cultural differences from the general population, since they are unable or unlikely to report their conditions to the authorities.