Political classes and freedom. When, where, why and how to follow.

Examples abound with respect to the exact definition of Italian political theorist theory of Gaetano Mosca (1858–1941.) Mosca’s enduring contribution to political science is the observation that all but the most primitive societies are ruled in fact, if not in theory, by a numerical minority. He named this minority the political class. Although his theory is correctly characterized as elitist, it should be observed that its basis is far different from The Power Elite.   Mosca aimed to develop a universal theory of political society and his more general theory of the Political Class reflects this aim. Mosca defined modern elites in term of their organisational skills. These organisational skills were especially useful in gaining political power in modern society.  Mosca was more liberal than the elitist theory since in Mosca’s conception, elites are not hereditary in nature and peoples from all classes of society can theoretically become “elite”. He also adhered to the concept of the circulation of elites, which is a dialectical theory of constant competition between elites, with one elite group replacing another repeatedly over time.

When elected legislatures dominated by subject-matter specialists, aided by permanent staffs, become a political class.


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